- Books vs. Articles | Print vs. Online
- Citation Websites
- Style (Print & Web)
Citations - About
Why do you need to write citations?
"Academic writing differs from everyday writing in the fact that it carefully documents its sources through the use of citations, which enables the reader to see what has
inspired the writer and to check the validity of their work."
Once you have found sources for your research, you will need to document them giving writers credit for
their work and their writings.
Any source of intellectual property that contributes to, informs, or inspires your own work needs to be acknowledged. For example, when you paraphrase or summarize someone's
ideas, or use someone's exact words by quoting them, you must acknowledge, by documentation, those works and the author. Taking or using another person's ideas,
language, words, etc., as your own is plagiarism.
A "citation" is a short note that documents your source(s)
of information. It provides the reader with identifying information so that they are able to access the original source.
styles (MLA, APA, SBL, etc.) vary according to the discipline. For example, an English paper requires MLA style while a psychology paper requires APA style. The content and order
of information varies with each style.
- APA (6th ed.)
- Berenbaum, M. (1989). Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press.
- Chicago (Author-Date, 15th ed.)
- Berenbaum, M. Ninety-nine gnats, nits, and nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
- MLA (17th ed.)
- Berenbaum, M. Ninety-nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989. Print.
- Turabian (6th ed.)
- Berenbaum, M. Ninety-Nine Gnats, Nits, and Nibblers. Urbana: University of Illinois Press, 1989.
- (Note: Check formatting guides for indentation rules. No indentation is used in the above citations examples.)
Where do you put a citation?
A proper citation has two components for documentation of sources:
WITHIN THE PAPER —
This may be a footnote, endnote or parenthetical reference and is placed next to each quote or paraphrase in order to document its source. When
you refer to another's work, cite your source.
AT THE END —
This is a comprehensive list of all the works used in the research project. It often referred to as works cited (MLA), reference list (APA) or bibliography
(Turabian), depending upon the style format that is used.
Format, content, and/or word order for documenting sources within the text differs
from that at the end of a paper.
Always follow the guidelines in the appropriate
style manual and your professor's instructions.
Refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions.
The most current editions of style manuals are on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC.
Citations - Books vs. Articles / Online vs. Print
Depending upon the subject you are writing for, identify your sources according to the proper citation style as instructed by your professor. Citations
will vary according to style, source type and format.
Citation Style -- What is the required style
for the course or discipline? (ACS,
APA, MLA, Turabian, SBL) Always consult the print library resources
or the association's official web page(s) for exact guidelines.
Type of Source -- What are you
citing? (book, journal article, website, interview)
For example, citations for books differ from article citations. (Refer to the examples given below.)
- Editor, translator, compiler (if applicable)
- Edition (if it is not the first)
- Publisher's name
- Publication place and date
ARTICLE CITATIONS generally include:
- Author(s) of article
- Article Title
- Periodical Title
- Issue Date
- Issue/volume Number
- Page Numbers
Format -- How was it delivered? (print, Web, audio/visual)
Book and article citations for
an online resource, such as library ebook or article databases, may require more documentation than for the hard copy (print) resources. You may need to include
- Database name
- Service Provider (for example, EBSCO or ebrary)
- Protocol (for example, "http") and full URL
- Date of access
Citations - Free Citation Management Software
Most ORU databases include
features that create citations for your selected journal articles, books, ebooks, etc., to save or copy and paste into a bibliography. For ebrary, EBSCO
databases, Sage databases, WorldCat, Wall Street Journal, and Credo Reference see Key
Points: Citation Tools (opens
in a new window).
The sites below let you fill in forms to create formatted citations, effectively manage research documents, and more.
Always refer to the reference print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions.
- BibMe.org - www.bibme.org
- Use auto-fill mode to enter a book title or journal article and it auto-completes and formats the citation. Manual entry
modes also available. Offers save option with login. MLA,
APA, Chicago, or Turabian.
- EasyBib - www.easybib.com
- Automatic bibliography and citation maker. Free MLA version with option to purchase upgraded version for APA and Chicago/Turabian
formatting. Cite a book, website, newspaper, journals, database, and more. Website
- KnightCite - www.calvin.edu/library/knightcite/
- MLA, APA and Chicago formats. Easy form to fill out. Provided by The Hekman Library, Calvin Calvin College.
- Citation Machine - http://citationmachine.net/
- Uses the 7th ed. of MLA, 6th ed. of APA, and 16th ed. of Chicago (8th ed. Turabian). Includes advertisements
- Mendeley - http://www.mendeley.com/
- "Free reference manager and academic social network that can help you organize your research, collaborate with
others online, and discover the latest research." Create a free account.
- NoodleTools - noodletools.com/login.php
- Step-by-step questionnaire process to create a citation in MLA, APA or Chicago.
- Pitts Theology Library: SBL Citation Builder
"SBL style is designed for students and scholars writing in the disciplines of ancient Near Eastern studies, Biblical studies, and studies of
- Qiqqa - www.qiqqa.com/
- Create citations, footnotes and biliographies; manage your documents.
- Zotero - www.zotero.org/
- Works with Firefox browser. A "free, easy-to-use tool to help you collect, organize, cite, and share your research sources."
Citation - Resources (Print and Web)
Common citation styles used at ORU are listed below along with publication
information and selected Web resources. The most current edition of a print style manual is
on Reserve at the Circulation Desk, 4th floor LRC. If you need further assistance, inquire at the Reference Desk. Always refer to the reference
print resources for complete citation formats and descriptions.
- ACS Style Guide: Effective Communication of Scientific Information (An
American Chemical Society Publication)
Call number QD8.5.A25 2006 LRC-R
- ACS Books: Reference Style Guidelines
Provides sample citations.
- Writing Tools - Chemistry Library (UW Madison Libraries)
- American Psychological Association (APA) 6th
7.02 Books, Reference Books, and Book Chapters PDF
Provides examples of citations for DSM)
6.31 Electronic sources and Locator Information PDF
(APA 6th, pp. 187-189; includes information about DOI's; scroll the page, content begins halfway down the PDF page)
What is a digital object identifier, or DOI? nn
Frequently Asked questions About APA Style®
The Basics of APA Style®
What's New in the Sixth Edition
The DOI System - Provides a link to the DOI web site.
- Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (APA),
5th ed. Call number BF76.7.P83
- APA Style.org: Electronic References
- APA Style.org: Frequently Asked Questions
- Using American Psychological Association (APA) Format
- (Purdue University Online Writing Lab)
- Using Principles of APA Style to Cite and Document Sources
- (Bedford/St. Martin's ONLINE!)
- Modern Language Association (MLA)
- MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers,
Call number LB2369.G53
MLA Style Manual and Guide to Scholarly Publishing, 2nd ed.
Call number PN147.G1444 LRC-R
- Frequently Asked Questions About MLA Style
- A Guide for Writing Research Papers Based on Modern Language Association (MLA) Documentation
- (Capital Community College) - http://cctc.commnet.edu/mla/index.shtml
Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ's)
- Using MLA Style to Cite and Document Sources
- (Bedford/St. Martin's ONLINE! by Andrew Harnak and Eugene Kleppinger)
- MLA Citation Style Examples
- (University of New Brunswick Libraries)
- Using Modern Language Association (MLA) Format
- (The OWL at Purdue - Online Writing Labs)
- A Manual for Writers of Term Papers, Theses, and Dissertations,
6th ed. Call number LB2369.T8
- Citing Sources in Academic Writing compiled by Brian P. Irwin
- Covenant Theological Seminary: Covenant Style Guide
- Turabian Style - Sample Footnote and Bibliographic Entries (6th edition)
- (Bridgewater State College)
- Turabian Style Guide
- (University of Southern Mississippi Libraries)
- Society of Biblical Literature (SBL)
- The SBL Handbook of Style: For Ancient Near Eastern,
Biblical, and Early Christian Studies,Call number PN147.S26
- Pitts Theology Library: SBL Citation Builder
- Student Supplement to the SBL Handbook of Style
- SBL Style
- (Lycoming College, Snowden Library)
- Other Resources
- CAA Publications: Art Bulletin Style Guide
- Provided by College Art Association
- Librarians' Index to the Internet (Style Guides)
- Research and Documentation Online by Diana Hacker